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UNL 2005 Specifications

7 June 2005
Copyright © UNL Center of UNDL Foundation


Chapter 3 Attributes

Attributes are mainly for the purpose to describe the subjectivity information of sentences. They show what is said from the speakerfs point of view: how the speaker views what is said. This includes phenomena technically called gspeech actsh, gpropositional attitudesh, gtruth valuesh, etc. Attributes are also used to express the range of concepts such as the concept indicate generic type of concept and so forth. This time, we newly introduce attributes to express logical expressions in order to strengthen the expressibility of the UNL.

Relations and UWs are used to describe the objectivity information of sentences. Attributes modify UWs or semantic networks (scope: compound concepts) to indicate subjectivity information such as about how the speaker views these states-of-affairs and his attitudes toward them and to indicate the property of the concepts.

Attributes are divided into the following eight groups:

  1. Describing logicality of UW

  2. Describing times with respect to the speaker

  3. Describing speakerfs view on aspects of event

  4. Describing speakerfs view of reference to concepts

  5. Describing speakerfs view of emphasis, focus and topic

  6. Describing speakerfs attitudes

  7. Describing speakerfs feelings and judgments

  8. For convention

3.1  Attributes describing logicality of UW

In UNL2005, we introduced new attributes to express logical expressions in order to strengthen the expressibility of the UNL although the role of those attribute can be expressed by using UWs as ordinal UNL expressions.  In this section, we focus on describing attributes and relations for expressing logic.

Table 8 shows the attributes for expressing logicality of UW. These attributes are used to attach to the UWs that have the logicality. e:@disjointedf can be attached to a group of UWs (a scope) to show that every concept included in the group are disjointed. It means that all element concepts do not share instances.
 
@transitive attached to an UW that has transitivity
'@transitivef can be attached to UW eancestor(icl>kindred)f. Because if gA is ancestor of Bh and gB is ancestor of Ch are true, gA is ancestor of Ch will be true.
@symmetric attached to an UW that has symmetricity
e@symmetricf can be attached to UW epartner(icl>....)f. Because if gA is a partner of Bh is true, gB is a partner of Ah will be true also.
@identifiable attached to an UW that can identify the subject
e@identifiablef can be attached to (compound) UW enational health insurance idf as the content of the UW can identify the person who hold the ID.
@disjointed attached to an UW or a group of UWs to show that all element concept do not hold common instance. All connected UWs do not share instances.
e@disjointedf can be attached to a scope consists of gmen and womenh as these two element concepts do not share common instances.

3.2  Attributes describing times with respect to the speaker

Where does the speaker situate his description in time, taking his moment of speaking as a point of reference? A time before he spoke? After? At approximately the same time? This is the information that defines gnarrative timeh as past, present or future. These Attributes are attached to the main predicate.

Although in many languages this information is signaled by tense markings on verbs, the concept is not tense, but gtime with respect to the speakerh. The clearest example is the simple present tense in English, which is not interpreted as the present time, but as gindependently of specific timesh.
Consider the example: The earth is round.
This sentence is true in the past, present and future, independently of the speakerfs time, so although the tense is gpresenth it is not interpreted as the present time.

@past happened in the past
ex) It was snowing yesterday
@present happening at present
ex) It is raining hard.
@future will happen in future
ex) He will arrive tomorrow

3.3  Attributes describing speakerfs view on aspects of event

A speaker can emphasize or focus on part of an event or treat it as a whole unit. This is closely linked to how the speaker places the event in time. These Attributes are attached to the main predicate.
The speaker can focus on the beginning (@begin) of the event, looking forward to it (@begin.@soon), or backward to it (@begin.@just).
He can also focus on the end (@end) or completion (@complete) of the event, looking forward to it (@end.@soon or @complete.@soon), or backward to it (@end.@just or @complete.@just).
He can focus on the middle (@progress) or continuation (@continue) of the event.
The speaker can choose to focus on the lasting effects or final state of the event (@state) or on the event as a repeating unit (@repeat), experience (@experience) or custom (@custom).
He can also focus on the incompleteness or the fact that it has not yet happened, by using @yet.

@begin beginning of an event or a state
ex) It began to work again
@complete finishing/completion of a (whole) event
ex) I've looked through the script.
look.@entry.@complete
@continue continuation of an event
ex) He went on talking.
talk.@continue.@past
@custom customary or repetitious action
ex) I used to visit [I would often go] there when I was a boy.
visit.@custom.@past
@end end/termination of an event or a state
ex) I have done it.
do.@end.@present
@experience experience
ex) Have you ever visited Japan?
visit.@experience.@interrogation
ex) I have been there.
visit.@exterience
@progress an event is in progress
ex) I am working now.
work.@progress.@present
@repeat repetition of an event
ex) It is so windy that the tree branches are knocking against the roof.
knock.@entry.@present.@repeat
@state final state or the existence of the object on which an action has been taken
ex) It is broken.
break.@state

These attributes are used to modify the attributes above, to express a variety of aspects of natural languages.

@just Expresses an event or a state that has just begun or ended/completed
Ex) He has just come.
come.@complete.@just
@soon Expresses an event or a state that is about to begin or end/completed
Ex) The train is about to leave.
leave.@begin.@soon
@yet Expresses an event or a state that has not yet started or ended/completed, together with @not
Ex) I have not yet done it.
do.@complete.@not.@yet

3.4  Attributes describing speakerfs view of reference to concepts

Whether an expression refers to a single individual, a small group or a whole set is often not clear. The expression gthe lionh is not sufficiently explicit for us to know whether the speaker means gone particular lionh or gall lionsh.  Consider the following examples:
The lion is a feline mammal.
The lion is eating an antelope.

In the first example, it seems reasonable to suppose that the speaker understood gthe lionh as gall lionsh, whereas in the second example as gone particular lionh.
The following Attributes are used to make explicit what the speakerfs view of reference seems to be.

@generic generic concept
ex) The dog is a faithful animal.
@def already referred
ex) the book you lost
@indef non-specific class
ex) There is a book on the desk.
@not complement set
ex) Donft be late!
@ordinal ordinal number
ex) the 2nd door

These attributes are usually attached to UWs that denote things.

3.5  Attributes describing speakerfs view of emphasis, focus and topic

The speaker can choose to focus or emphasize parts of a sentence to show how important he thinks they are in the situation described.  This is often related to sentence structure. One UW marked with "@entry" is essential for each UNL expression or in a Compound UW.

@contrast Contrasted UW
For instance, gbuth in the examples below is used to introduce a word or phrase that contrasts with what was said before.
ex) It wasnft the red one but the blue one.
ex) Hefs poor but happy
@emphasis Emphasized UW
ex) I do like it.
@entry Entry or main UW of a sentence or a scope
ex) He promised (entry of the sentence) that he would come (entry of the scope)
@qfocus Focused UW of a question
ex) Are you painting the bathroom blue?
To this question, the answer will be gNo, Ifm painting the LIVING-ROOM blueh
@theme Instantiates an object from a different class
@title Title
@topic Topic
ex) He(@topic) was killed by her.
ex) The girl(@topic) was given a doll.
ex) This doll(@topic) was given to the girl.

3.6  Attributes describing speakerfs attitudes

The speaker can also express, directly or indirectly, what his attitudes or emotions are towards what is being said or whom it is being said to. This includes respect and politeness towards the listener and surprise toward what is being said.

@affirmative Affirmation
@confirmation Confirmation

ex) You won't say that, will you?
ex) Itfs red, isnft it?
ex) Then you won't come, right?

@exclamation Exclamation
ex) kirei na! (gHow beautiful (it is)!h in Japanese)
ex) Oh, look out!
@humility In a humility manner
ex) That is quite impossible for the likes of me.@humility.
@imperative Imperative
ex) Get up!
ex) You will please leave the room.
@interrogative Interrogation
ex) Who is it?
@invitation Inducement
ex) Will / Wonft you have some tea?
ex) Letfs go, shall we?
@polite polite way 
ex) Could you (please)...
ex) If you could c I would c
@request Request
ex) Please donft forgetc
@respect Respectful way
ex) o taku (g(your) househ in Japanese)
ex) Good morning, sir.
@vocative Vocative
ex) Boys, be ambitious!

3.7  Attributes describing speakerfs feelings and judgments

These attributes express the speakerfs feelings or how the speaker views or judges what is said.

This sort of subjective information is very much dependent on the type of language. It should be possible to express every kind of subjective information from all languages. Thus, the development of the attributes is open to the developers of each language, who can introduce a new attribute when no current attribute expresses its meaning. The new attribute must be also introduced in the same way.

ABILITY

@ability Ability, capability of doing something

ex) The child can 't walk yet.
ex) He can speak English but he canft write it very well.

BENEFICIALTY

@get-benefit Speakerfs feeling of receiving benefits through the fact or result of something (to be) done by somebody else

ex) I'll have my secretary type the letter.
*In Japanese the auxiliary verb of g~te morauh is used to express the getting benefits feeling. For instance it is frequently used in a sentence in the sense of gto have somebody do somethingh in Japanese.

@give-benefit Speakerfs feeling of giving benefits by doing something for somebody else

ex) Be kind to old people.
*In Japanese the auxiliary verb of g~te ageruh is used to express the giving benefits feeling. For instance it is frequently used in a sentence in the sense of gBe kind to old peopleh in Japanese.

CONCLUSION

@conclusion Logical conclusion due to a certain condition
ex) He is her husband; she is his wife.
@consequence Logical consequence
ex) He was angry, wherefore I left him alone.

CONDITION

@sufficient Sufficient condition
ex) only have to

CONSENT / DISSENT

@consent Consent feeling of the speaker about something
@dissent Dissent feeling of the speaker about something
ex) But thatfs not true.
@grant To give/get consent/permission to do something
ex) Can I smoke in here?
ex) You may borrow my car if you like.
@grant-not Not to give consent to do something
ex) You {mustn't/are not allowed to/may not} borrow my car.

EXPECTATION

@although Something follows against [contrary to] or beyond expectation
ex) Although he didn't speak, I felt a certain warmth in his manner.
@discontented Discontented feeling of the speaker about something

ex) (I'll tip you 10 pence.) But that's not enough!

@expectation Expectation of something

ex) Children ought to be able to read by the age of 7.
ex) If you leave now, you should get there by five o'clock.

@wish Wishful feeling, to wish something is true or has happened

ex) If only I could remember his name! (~I do wish I could remember his name!)
ex) You might have just let me know.

INTENTION

@insistence Strong determination to do something
ex) He will do it, whatever you say.
@intention Intention about something or to do something

ex) He shall get this money. (Speakerfs intention)
ex) We shall let you know our decision.

@want Desire to do something
ex) I want to go France.
@will Determination to do something

ex) Ifll write as soon as I can.
ex) We wonft stay longer than two hours.

NECESSITY / OBLIGATION

@need Necessity to do something

ex) You need to finish this work today.
ex) I must be going now.
ex) I always have to work hard.

@obligation Obligation to do something according to (quasi-) law, contract, or c

ex) The vendor shall maintain the equipment in good repair.
ex) You must come by nine.

@obligation-not Obligation not to do something, forbid to do something according to (quasi-) law, contract or c

ex) Cars must not park in front of the entrance.
ex) No smoking

@should To do something as a matter of course

ex) You should do as he says.
ex) You ought to start at once.

@unavoidable Unavoidable feeling of the speaker about doing something
ex) I could not help speaking the truth.

POSSIBILITY

@certain Certainty that something is true or happens
ex) If Peter had the money, he would have bought a car.
ex) They should be home by now.
@inevitable Logical inevitability that something is true or happens
ex) All living things must die.
@may Practical possibility that something is true or happens
ex) It may be true.
ex) It could be.
@possible Logical possibility that something is true or happens
ex) Anybody can make mistakes.
ex) If Peter had the money, he would buy a car.
@probable (Practical) probability that something is true or happens
ex) That would be his mother.
ex) He must be lying.
@rare Rare logical possibility that something is true or happens
ex) If such a thing should happen, what shall we do?
ex) If I should fail, I will [would] try again.
@unreal Unreality that something is true or happens
ex) If we had enough money, we could buy a car.
ex) If Peter had the money, he could buy a car.

EMOTION

@admire Admiring feeling of the speaker about something
 
@blame Blameful feeling of the speaker about something
ex) A sailor, and afraid of the sea!
@contempt Contemptuous feeling of the speaker about something
ex) You never could do it
*In Japanese the postpositional particles of gnadoh, gnankah or gnanteh as in gkimi nado niha..h can be used to express the contemptuous feeling of the speaker about the target, mainly in a negative sentence
@regret Regretful feeling of the speaker about something
ex) It's a pity that he should miss such a golden opportunity.
@surprised Surprised feeling of the speaker about something
ex) (He has succeeded!) But that's great!
@troublesome Troublesome feeling of the speaker about the occurrence of something
ex) My house was [I had my house] broken into.@troublesome yesterday.
*There is a troublesome feeling of the speaker when using a passive form of the verb in this case in Japanese.

3.8  Attributes for convention

Typical UNL structures can be expressed by attributes to avoid the complexity of enconverting and deconverting. What marks are used for enclosing a word or phrase can also be expressed by attributes. The attributes for indicating enclosure must be attached to the scope node of the enclosed phrase if it consists of a (set of) binary relation(s) of UNL.

@passive passive form
@pl more than one
@angle_bracket < > are used
@brace { } are used
@double_parenthesis (( )) are used
@double_quote g h are used
@parenthesis ( ) are used
@single_quote e f are used
@square_bracket [ ] are used

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