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UNL 2005 Specifications

7 June 2005
Copyright © UNL Center of UNDL Foundation


Chapter 2 Relations

There are many factors to be considered in choosing an inventory of relations between concepts. Different factors taken into account in choosing the relations lead to different sets of the relations. The UNL relations are selected according to the following principles.

Principles of Relation

PRINCIPLE 1 : NECESSARY CONDITION
When an UW has relations between more than one other UWs, each relation label should be set so as to be able to identify each relation on the premise that there is enough knowledge about the concept of each UW expressed.

PRINCIPLE 2 : SUFFICIENT CONDITION
When there are relations between UWs, each relation label should be set so as to be able to understand the role of each UW only by referring to the relation label.

Definitions of Relations

The following are the relations defined according to the above principles. A relation label is represented as strings of 3 characters or less.

agt and aoj bas ben cag cao cnt cob con coo dur equ fmt frm
gol icl ins int iof man met mod nam obj opl or per plc plf
plt pof pos ptn pur qua rsn scn seq shd src tim tmf tmt to
via

agt agent
indicates a thing in focus that initiates an action
agt ( do, thing )
agt ( action(icl>event), thing )
Detailed Definition

An agent is defined as the relation between:
UW1 - do, and
UW2 - a thing
where:
· UW2 initiates UW1, or
· UW2 is thought of as having a direct role in making UW1 happen.

Examples and Readings

agt ( break(agt>thing,obj>thing), John(iof>person) )
agt ( translate(agt>thing,gol>language,obj>information,src>language),computer(icl>machine) )
agt ( run(icl>act(agt>volitional thing)), car(icl>vehicle) )
agt ( destroy(agt>thing,obj>thing), explosion(icl>event) )

John breaks c
computer translates c
car runs c
explosion destroys c

Related Relations

· An agent is different from cag in that an agent initiates the action, whereas a co-agent initiates a different, accompanied action.
· An agent is different from ptn in that an agent is the focused initiator of the action, whereas a partner is a non-focused initiator.
· An agent is different from aoj in that an agent initiates an action, whereas aoj indicates a thing that is in a state. A state is expressed by a UW that belongs to 'be'.

and conjunction
indicates a partner to have conjunctive relation to
and ( uw, uw )
Detailed Definition
A conjunction is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – a concept, and
UW2 – another concept,
where:
· The UWs are different, and
· UW1 and UW2 are seen as grouped together, and
· what is said of UW1 is also said of UW2.
Examples and Readings

and ( quickly, easily )
and ( dance(agt>person), sing(agt>person) )
and ( Mary(iof>person), John(iof>person) )

c easily and quickly
c singing and dancing
c John and Mary

Related Relations
· A conjunction is different from or in that with and things are grouped together to say the same thing about both of them, whereas with or we separate them to indicate that what is true about one is not true about the other.
· A conjunction is different from cag in that when the agents are conjoined, both initiate an explicit event, whereas with cag, the co-agent initiates an implicit event.
· A conjunction is different from ptn in that when the agents and partners are conjoined, both are in focus, whereas with ptn, the partner is not in focus (as compared to the agent).
· A conjunction is different from coo and seq in meaning, although in many cases the same expressions can be used for both. A conjunction only means that terms are grouped together; no information about time is implied. Coo, on the other hand, means that the terms are in the same time, whether they are considered to be grouped together or not. In turn, seq means that the terms are ordered in time, one after the other.
· A conjunction is different from int and or in that as a logical operator or makes differences, int makes an intersection, whereas  and makes a union .
aoj thing with attribute
indicates a thing that is in s state or has an attribute
aoj ( be, thing )
aoj ( thing, thing )
aoj ( uw(aoj>thing), thing )
Detailed Definition
A thing with an attribute or in a state is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – an attribute or a state or a thing which represents a state, and
UW2 – a thing,
where:
· UW1 is an attribute or state of UW2, or
· UW1 is a state associated with UW2.
Examples and Readings

aoj ( red(aoj>thing), leaf(pof>plant) )
aoj ( available(aoj>thing,obj<thing), information )
aoj ( nice, ski(agt>person) )
aoj ( teacher(icl>occupation), John(iof>person) )
aoj ( have(aoj>thing,obj>thing), I )
aoj ( know(aoj>thing,obj>thing), John(iof>person) )

... leaf is red.
This information is available for c
Skiiing is nice.
John is a teacher.
I have a pen.

John knows c

Related Relations
· A thing with an attribute is different from mod in that mod gives some restriction of the concept in focus, whereas aoj indicates a thing of a state or characteristic.
· A thing with an attribute is different from ben in that a beneficiary is quite independent from a focused event or state. This event or state can be considered as exerting a good or bad influence on the beneficiary, whereas aoj indicates a thing that has a direct relation with the event or state, the event or state can be considered as describing a state or characteristic about the thing.
· A thing with an attribute is different from obj in that obj indicates a thing which is directly affected by an action or phenomenon, whereas, aoj indicates a thing in a state.
bas basis
indicates a thing used as the basis (standard) of comparison
bas ( be(aoj>volitional thing,bas>thing,obj>thing), thing )
bas ( do(agt>thing,bas>thing,obj>thing), thing )
bas ( how(bas>thing), thing )
bas ( uw(aoj>thing,bas>thing), thing )
Detailed Definition
A basis is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – a concept expressing comparison, and
UW2 – a thing,
where:
· UW1 is a concept expressing comparison, and
· UW2 is something used as the basis for evaluating the characteristic or quantity of some other (focused) thing.
Examples and readings

bas ( more(aoj>thing,bas>thing), 7 )
bas ( more(icl>how,bas>thing), Jack(iof>person) )
man ( beautiful, more(icl>how,bas>thing) )
bas ( more(icl>how,bas>thing), rose(icl>flower) )
aoj ( :01, John(iof>person) )
man:01 ( quiet(aoj>thing), more(icl>how,bas>thing) )
bas:01 ( more(icl>how,bas>thing), shy(aoj>thing) )
bas ( prefer(aoj>volitional thing,bas>uw,obj>uw ), live(agt>person):02 )
plc ( live(agt>person):02, city(icl>region) )

Ten is three more than seven.
Betty weighs more than Jack (does).
A tulip is more beautiful than a rose  

John is more quiet than shy.


Many people prefer living in the country to living in a city

ben beneficiary
indicates an indirectly related beneficiary or victim of an event or state
ben ( be, thing )
ben ( do, thing )
ben ( occur, thing )
ben ( uw(aoj>thing), thing )
Detailed Definition
A beneficiary is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – an event or state, and
UW2 – a thing,
where:
· UW2 is thought of as being indirectly affected by UW1, as the beneficiary or victim.
Examples and Readings
ben ( give(agt>thing,gol>thing,obj>thing), country(icl>region) )
ben ( good(aoj>thing), John(iof>person) )

To give onefs life for onefs country.
It is good for John to c

Related Relations
· A beneficiary is different from aoj in that aoj has a direct relation with the focused state or event and the focused state or event can be considered as describing the thing of aoj; Whereas a beneficiary is quite independent from a focused event or state, but this event or state can be considered as exerting a good or bad influence on the beneficiary.
cag co-agent
indicates a thing not in focus that initiates an implicit event that is done in parallel
cag ( do, thing )
cag ( action(icl>event), thing )
Detailed Definition
A co-agent is defined as the relation between:
UW1 - an action, and
UW2 - a thing
where:
· There is an implicit action that is independent of, but accompanies, UW1, and
· UW2 is thought of as initiating the implicit action, and
· UW2 and the implicit action are seen as not being in focus (as compared to the agentfs action.
Examples and Readings

cag ( walk(agt>volitional thing), John(iof>person) )
cag ( live(agt>volitional thing), aunt(icl>person) )

To walk with John
To live with c aunt

Related Relations
· A co-agent is different from agt in that differing independent actions occur for an agent and a co-agent. Moreover, an agent and its action are in focus, while a co-agent and its action are not in focus.
· A co-agent is different from the ptn in that the co-agent initiates an action that is independent of an agentfs action, whereas a partner initiates the same action together with an agent.
cao co-thing with attribute
indicates a thing not in focus that is in a parallel state

cao ( be, thing )
cao ( thing, thing )
cao ( uw(aoj>thing), thing )

Detailed Definition

A co-thing with an attribute is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – a state or a thing which represents a state, and
UW2 – a thing,
where:
· There is an implicit state that is independent of, but accompanies, UW1, and
· UW2 is associated with the implicit state.

Examples and readings

cao ( exist(aoj>thing), you )

be with you

Related Relations
· A co-thing with an attribute is different from aoj in that there is a different, independent state for the thing with an attribute and a co-thing with an attribute, respectively.
cnt content
indicates the content of a concept

cao ( uw, uw )

Detailed Definition
A content is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – a concept, and
UW2 – a concept,
where:
· UW2 is the content or explanation of UW1.
Examples and Readings

cnt ( Internet(icl>communication network),amalgamation(icl>harmony) )
cnt ( language generator, deconverter.@double_quote )
cnt ( risk(icl>danger), :01 )
obj:01 ( lose(aoj>thing,obj>thing)@entry, money(icl>mark) )

The Internet: an amalgamation
a language generator gdeconverterhc
the risk of losing money

cob affected co-thing
indicates a thing that is directly affected by an implicit event done in parallel or an implicit state in parallel

cob ( be, thing )
cob ( do, thing )
cob ( occur, thing )
cob ( event(icl>abstract thing), thing )
cob ( uw(aoj>thing,obj>thing), thing )

Detailed Definition
A gco-objecth is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – an event or state, and
UW2 – a thing,
where:
· UW2 is thought of as directly affected by an implicit event done in parallel or an implicit state in parallel.
Examples and Readings

cob ( die(obj>living thing), Mary(iof>person) )
obj ( injure(icl>hurt(agt>thing,obj>living thing)), John(iof>person) )
cob ( injure(icl>hurt(agt>thing,obj>living thing)), friend(icl>comrade).@pl )
pos ( friend(icl>comrade).@pl, he ) )

c dead with Mary
John was injured in the accident with his friends

Related Relations
· A co-object is different from obj in that the obj is in focus, whereas cob is related to a second, non-focused implicit event or state.
con condition
indicates a non-focused event or state that conditions a focused event or state

con ( be, uw )
con ( do, uw )
con ( occur, uw )
con ( uw(aoj>thing), uw )

Detailed Definition

A condition is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – an event or state, and
UW2 – an event or state,
where:
· UW1 is a focused event or state, whereas
· UW2 is a conditioning event or state, and
· UW2 is thought of as having an indirect or external role in making UW1 happen, that is, as some conditioning or inhibiting factor (real or hypothesized) that influences whether or when UW1 can happen.

Examples and Readings

aoj:01 ( tired(aoj>thing), you )
con ( go(icl>move(agt>thing,gol>place,src>place)), :01 )

If you are tired, we will go straight home

coo effected co-thing
indicates a co-occurrent event or state for a focused event or state
coo ( be, be )
coo ( be, do )
coo ( be, occur )
coo ( be, thing )
coo ( be, uw(aoj>thing) )
coo ( do, be )
coo ( do, do )
coo ( do, occur )
coo ( do, thing )
coo ( do, uw(aoj>thing) )
coo ( occur, be )
coo ( occur, do )
coo ( occur, occur )
coo ( occur, thing )
coo ( occur, uw(aoj>thing) )
coo ( thing, be )
coo ( thing, do )
coo ( thing, occur )
coo ( thing, thing )
coo ( thing, uw(aoj>thing) )
coo ( uw(aoj>thing), be )
coo ( uw(aoj>thing), do )
coo ( uw(aoj>thing), occur )
coo ( uw(aoj>thing), thing )
coo ( uw(aoj>thing), uw(aoj>thing) )
Detailed Definition
A co-occurrence is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – an event or state, and
UW2 – an event or state,
where:
· UW1 is a focused event or state, whereas
· UW2 is a co-occurrent event or state, and
· UW1 occurs or is true at the same time as UW2.
Examples and Readings

coo ( cry(icl>weep(agt>volitional thing)), run(icl>act(agt>volitional thing)) )
coo ( red(aoj>thing), hot(aoj>thing) )

c was crying while running
c is red while c is hot

Related Relations
· A co-occurrence is different from seq in that seq describes events or states that do not occur at the same time, but one after the other, whereas coo describes events that occur simultaneously.
· A co-occurrence is different from tim in that coo relates the times of events or states with other events or states, whereas tim relates events or states directly with points or intervals of time.
dur duration
indicates a period of time during which an event occurs or a state exists
dur ( be, do )
dur ( be, event(icl>abstract thing) )
dur ( be, occur )
dur ( be, period(icl>time) )
dur ( be, state(icl>abstract thing) )
dur ( be, thing )
dur ( be, uw(aoj>thing) )
dur ( do, do )
dur ( do, event(icl>abstract thing) )
dur ( do, occur )
dur ( do, period(icl>time) )
dur ( do, state(icl>abstract thing) )
dur ( do, thing )
dur ( do, uw(aoj>thing) )
dur ( occur, do )
dur ( occur, event(icl>abstract thing) )
dur ( occur, occur )
dur ( occur, period(icl>time) )
dur ( occur, state(icl>abstract thing) )
dur ( occur, thing )
dur ( occur, uw(aoj>thing) )
dur ( thing, do )
dur ( thing, event(icl>abstract thing) )
dur ( thing, occur )
dur ( thing, period(icl>time) )
dur ( thing, state(icl>abstract thing) )
dur ( thing, thing )
dur ( thing, uw(aoj>thing) )
dur ( uw(aoj>thing), do )
dur ( uw(aoj>thing), event(icl>abstract thing) )
dur ( uw(aoj>thing), occur )
dur ( uw(aoj>thing), period(icl>time) )
dur ( uw(aoj>thing), state(icl>abstract thing) )
dur ( uw(aoj>thing), thing )
dur ( uw(aoj>thing), uw(aoj>thing) )
Detailed Definition

A duration is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – an event or a state, and
UW2 – a period during which the event or state continues

Examples and Readings

dur ( work(agt>person), hour(icl>period) )
qua ( hour(icl>period), 9 )
dur ( talk(icl>express(agt>thing,gol>person,obj>thing), meeting(icl>event) )
dur ( come(icl>move(agt>thing,gol>place,src>place), absence(icl>state) )

c work nine hours (a day)

c talk c during meeting
c come during (my) absence

equ effected co-thing
indicates an equivalent concept

equ ( uw, uw )

Detailed Definition
An equivalent concept is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – a concept, and
UW2 – a concept,
where:
· The UWs are different, and
· UW2 is an equivalent concept of UW1.
Examples and Readings

equ ( deconverter, language generator.@parenthesis )

the deconverter (a language generator)

fmt range/from-to
indicates a range between two things

fmt ( thing, thing )

Detailed Definition

A range (from-to) is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – a range-initial thing, and
UW2 – a range-final thing,
where:
· The UWs are different, and
· UW2 describes the beginning of a range and UW1 describes the end.

Examples and Readings

fmt ( z(icl>letter), a(icl>letter) )
fmt ( New York(iof>city), Osaka(iof>city) )
fmt ( Friday(icl>day), Monday(icl>day) )

the alphabets from a to z
the distance from Osaka to New York
the weekdays from Monday to Friday

Related Relations
· A range is different from src and gol in that for src and gol the initial and final states of certain obj are characterized with respect to some event, whereas fmt makes a similar characterization but without linking the endpoints of a range to some event.
· A range is different from plf and plt or tmf and tmt in that fmt defines endpoints of a range without reference to any sort of event, whereas plf, plt, tmf and tmt delimit events.
frm origin
indicates an initial state of a thing or a thing initially associated with the focused thing

frm ( thing, thing )
frm ( thing, uw(aoj>thing) )

Detailed Definition

An origin is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – a thing, and
UW2 – a state or a thing than can be seen as origin of the thing,
where:
· The UWs are different, and
· UW1 is the focused thing, and
· UW2 is the initial state describing the focused thing UW1, or
· UW2 is a thing that is initially associated with the UW1, origin such as the original position of UW1.

Examples and Readings

frm ( visitor(icl>person), Japan(iof>country)

a visitor from Japan

Related Relations
· An origin is different from src in that src is a relation used with an event or a state, whereas frm is directly linked to a thing. For instance, ga visitor from Japanh is expressed as gfrm ( visitor(icl>person), Japan(iof>country) )h, whereas ga visitor came from Japanh is expressed as gsrc (come(agt>thing), Japan(iof>country))h and gagt (come(agt>thing), visitor(icl>person) )h.
gol goal/final state
indicates a final state of object or a thing finally associated with the object of an event

gol ( be(aoj>thing,gol>thing), thing )
gol ( do, thing )
gol ( do, uw(aoj>thing) )
gol ( occur, thing )
gol ( occur, uw(aoj>thing) )
gol ( event(icl>abstract thing), thing )

Detailed Definition

A final state is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – an event, and
UW2 – a state or thing,
where:
· UW2 is the specific state describing the obj (of UW1) at the end of UW1, or
· UW2 is a thing that is associated with the obj (of UW1) and the end of UW1.

Examples and Readings

gol ( change(gol>thing,obj>thing,src>thing), red(aoj>thing) )
gol ( deposit(agt>thing,gol>thing,obj>thing), account(icl>record) )

the lights changed from green to red
millions were deposited in a Swiss bank account

Related Relations
A final state is different from tmf and plf in that gol describes qualitative characteristics and not time nor place related to an event.
icl included/a kind of
indicates an upper concept or a more general concept

icl ( uw, uw )

Detailed Definition

An upper concept or a more general concept is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – a class concept, and
UW2 – a class concept,
where:
· The UWs are different, and
· UW2 is an upper or more general class concept of UW1, i.e.
· UW1 is a subset concept of UW2, and UW1 inherits UW2fs property.

Examples and Readings

icl ( bird(icl>animal), animal(icl>living thing) )

a bird is a (kind of) animal

ins instrument
indicates an instrument to carry out an event

ins ( do, concrete thing )

Detailed Definition

An instrument is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – an event, and
UW2 – a concrete thing,
where:
· UW2 specifies the concrete thing that is used in order to make UW1 happen.

Examples and Readings

ins ( look(agt>thing,obj>thing), telescope(icl>optical instrument) )
ins ( write(agt>thing,obj>thing), pencil(icl>stationery) )
ins ( cut(agt>thing,obj>thing,opl>thing), scissors(icl>cutley) )

look at stars through a telescope
write [draw] with a pencil
He cut the string with a pair of scissors

Related Relations

· An instrument is different from man in that man describes an event as a whole, whereas ins characterizes one of the components of the event: the use of the instrument. And, a manner is an abstract thing whereas an instrument is a concrete thing.
· An instrument is different from met in that met is used for abstract things (abstract means or methods), whereas ins is used for concrete things.

int intersection
indicates all common instances to have with a partner concept

int ( uw, uw )

Detailed Definition

An intersection is taken between:
UW1 – a class concept, and
UW2 – another class concept,
where:
· The UWs are different, and
· UW1 and UW2 have common instances.

Examples and Readings

int ( tableware(icl>tool), cookware(icl>tool)) )

an intersection of tableware and cookware

Related Relations

· An intersection is different from and and or in that as a logical operator and makes a union, or makes differences, whereas int makes an intersection.

iof an instance of
indicates a class concept that an instance belongs to

iof ( uw, uw )

Detailed Definition

A class concept is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – an instance, and
UW2 – a class concept,
where:
· The UWs are different, and
· UW2 is a class concept that UW1 belongs to, i.e.
· UW1 is an instance of UW2, and UW1 inherits UW2fs property.

Examples and Readings

iof ( Tokyo(iof>city), city in Japan )

Tokyo is a city in Japan

man manner
indicates a way to carry out an event or the characteristics of a state

man ( be, how )
man ( do, how )
man ( occur, how )
man ( uw(aoj>thing), how )

Detailed Definition

A gmannerh is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – an event or state, and
UW2 – a manner,
where:
· UW1 is done or exists in a way characterized by UW2.

Examples and Readings

man ( move(agt<thing,gol>place,src>place), quickly )
man ( visit(agt>thing,obj>thing), often )
man ( beautiful, very(icl>how) )

move quickly
I often visit him.
it is very beautiful.

Related Relations

· A manner is different from ins or met in that ins describes how an event is carried out in terms of the instruments, met describes how an event is carried out in terms of the component steps of the event, whereas man describes other quantitative or qualitative characteristics of the event as a whole.

met method/means
indicates a means to carry out an event

met ( do, abstract thing )
met ( do, do )

Detailed Definition

A gmethod or meansh is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – an action, and
UW2 – an abstract thing or an action,
where:
· UW2 specifies the abstract thing used or the steps carried out in order to make UW1 happen.

Examples and Readings

met ( solve(icl>resolve(agt>thing,obj>thing)), dynamics(icl>science) )
met ( solve(icl> resolve(agt>thing,obj>thing)), algorithm(icl>method) )
met ( separate(agt>thing,obj>thing,src>thing)), cut(agt>thing,obj>thing,opl>thing) )

c solve c with dynamics
c solve c using c algorithm
c separate c by cutting c

Related Relations

· A method or means is different from man in that man describes an event as a whole, whereas met characterizes the component steps or procedures of an action.
· A method or means is different from ins in that met is used for abstract things (abstract means or methods), whereas ins is used for concrete things

mod modification
indicates a thing that restricts a focused thing

mod ( thing, thing )
mod ( thing, uw(mod<thing) )

Detailed Definition

A gmodificationh is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – a thing, and
UW2 – a restriction or a thing,
where:
· UW1 is the focused thing to be restricted by UW2, and
· UW2 is a restriction or a thing that restricts UW1 in some way.
· When UW2 is a set of UNL expressions of a clause or an phrase, this phrase or clause must be the concrete content of UW1. In this case the whole UNL expression of the phrase or clause must be expressed in a scope and will be treated as a NOMINAL concept.

Examples and Readings

mod ( story(icl>tale), whole(mod<thing) )
mod ( plan(icl>idea), master(mod<thing) )
mod ( part(pof>thing), main(mod<thing) )

the whole story
a master plan
the main part

Related Relations

· A modification is different from aoj in that aoj indicates a thing that is in a state or has some characteristic, whereas mod merely indicates a restriction of the focused thing, which might indirectly suggest some characteristics of the thing described.
· A modification is different from man in that man describes a way to carry out an event or the characteristics of a state, whereas mod restricts a thing

nam name
indicates a name of a thing

nam ( thing, name(icl>mark) )

Detailed Definition

A name is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – a thing, and
UW2 – a string used as a name,
where:
· The UWs are different, and
· UW2 is a name of UW1.

Examples and readings

nam ( son(icl>relative), Hikari )

his son "Hikari"

obj affected thing
indicates a thing in focus that is directly affected by an event or state

obj ( be, thing )
obj ( do, thing )
obj ( occur, thing )
obj ( event(icl>abstract thing), thing )
obj ( uw(aoj>thing,obj>thing), thing )

Detailed Definition

An affected thing is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – an event or state, and
UW2 – a thing,
where:
· UW2 is thought of as directly affected by an event or state.

Examples and Readings

obj ( move(gol>place,obj>thing,src>place), table(icl>furniture) )
obj ( melt(gol>thing,obj>thing), sugar(icl>seasoning) )
obj ( cure(agt>thing,obj>thing), patient(icl>person) )
obj ( have(aoj>thing,obj>thing), pen(icl>writing instrument) )

the table moved.
the sugar melts into c
to cure the patient.
I have a pen.

Related Relations

· An affected thing is different from cob in that obj is in focus, whereas cob is related to a second, non-focused implicit event or state.

opl affected place
indicates a place in focus affected by an event

opl ( do(agt>thing,obj>thing,opl>thing), thing )
opl ( occur(obj>thing,opl>thing), thing )

Detailed Definition

An affected place is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – an event, and
UW2 – a place or thing defining a place,
where:
· UW2 is a place that is seen as being affected by the event.

Examples and Readings

opl ( pat(icl>touch(agt>thing,obj>thing,opl>thing)), shoulder(pof>trunk) )
opl ( cut(agt>thing,obj>thing,opl>thing), middle(icl>place) )

c pat c on shoulder
c cut c in middle

Related Relations

· An affected place is different from obj and cob in that what is affected by the event is a place rather than other kinds of things.
· An affected place is different from plc in that an affected place is directly by the event, while the physical and logical place (plc) defines the environment in which the event happens.

or disjunction
indicates a partner to have disjunctive relation to

or ( uw, uw )

Detailed Definition

A disjunction is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – a concept, and
UW2 – a concept,
where:
· The UWs are different, and
· Some description is true for either UW1 or UW2 (but not both), or
· Some description is true for either UW1 or UW2 (and perhaps both).

Examples and Readings

or ( leave(agt>thing,obj>place), stay(icl>remain(agt>thing )) )
or ( blue(icl>color), red(icl>color) )
or ( Jack(iof>person), John(iof>person) )

Will you stay or leave?
Is it red or blue?
Who is going to do it, John or Jack?

Related Relations

· A disjunction is different from a conjunction in that the items of disjunction are grouped in order to say that something is true for one or the other, whereas in a conjunction they are grouped to say that the same is true for both.  A disjunction in formal logic permits three situations for it to be true:  1) it is true for UW1, 2) it is true for UW2, and 3) it is true for both. On the other hand, a conjunction only permits the third situation.
·
A disjunction is different from and and int in that as a logical operator int makes an intersection, or makes differences, whereas and makes a union.

per proportion/rate/distribution
indicates a basis or unit of proportion, rate or distribution

per ( thing, thing )

Detailed Definition

A proportion, rate or distribution is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – a quantity, and
UW2 – a quantity, or a thing seen as a quantity,
where:
· The UWs are different, and
· UW1 and UW2 form a proportion, where UW1 is the numerator and UW2 is the denominator, or
· UW2 is the basis or unit for understanding UW1, or
· Each UW expresses a different dimension, of size, for example.

Examples and readings

per ( hour(icl>period), day(icl>period) )
qua ( hour(icl>period), 8 )
per ( time(icl>frequency), week(icl>period) )
qua ( time(icl>frequency), 2 )

eitgh hours a day

c twice a week

plc place
indicates a place where an event occurs, or a state that is true, or a thing that exists

plc ( be, place(icl>thing) )
plc ( do, place(icl>thing) )
plc ( occur, place(icl>thing) )
plc ( thing, place(icl>thing) )
plc ( uw(aoj>thing), place(icl>thing) )

Detailed Definition

A place is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – an event, a state, or a thing, and
UW2 – a place or thing understood as a place.

Examples and Readings

plc ( cook(agt>thing), kitchen(pof>building) )
plc ( sit(agt>thing), beside(icl>place) )
plc ( cool(icl>cold), here(icl>place) )

c cook c in the kitchen
c sit beside me
Itfs cool here.

Related Relations

· A place is different from plf and plt or src and gol in that plc describes a place with respect to an event as a whole, whereas these other relations describe the position with respect to parts of an event.
· A place is different from opl in that plc is not seen as being affected by an event but merely as a reference point for characterizing it, whereas opl is seen as being affected

plf initial place
indicates a place where an event begins or a state that becomes true

plf ( be, place(icl>thing) )
plf ( do, place(icl>thing) )
plf ( occur, place(icl>thing) )
plf ( uw(aoj>thing), place(icl>thing) )

Detailed Definition

An ginitial placeh (or gplace-fromh) is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – an event or state, and
UW2 – a place or thing defining a place,
where:
· UW2 is the specific place where UW1 started, or
· UW2 is the specific place from where UW1 is true.

Examples and Readings

plf ( travel(agt>volutional thing), Tokyo(icl>city) )
plf ( deep(aoj>thing), there(icl>place) )

traveling from Tokyo
The sea is deep from there to here

Related Relations

· An initial place is different from plc in that plc describes events or states taken as a whole, whereas plf describes only the initial part of an event or state.
· An initial place is different from plt in that plt describes the final part of an event or state, whereas plf describes the initial part of an event or state.
· An initial place is different from src in that plf describes the place where the event began, whereas src describes the initial state of the object.

plt final place
indicates a place where an event ends or a state that becomes false

plt ( be, place(icl>thing) )
plt ( do, place(icl>thing) )
plt ( occur, place(icl>thing) )
plt ( uw(aoj>thing), place(icl>thing) )

Detailed Definition

A final place is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – an event or state, and
UW2 – a place or thing defining a place,
where:
· UW2 is the specific place where UW1 ended, or
· UW2 is the specific place where UW2 becomes false.

Examples and readings

plt ( travel(agt>volitional thing), Boston(iof>city) )
plt ( deep(aoj>thing), here(icl>place) )

to travel to Boston
The sea is deep from there to here

Related Relations

· A final place is different from plc in that plc describes events or states taken as a whole, whereas plt describes only the final part of an event.
· A final place is different from plf in that plt describes the final part of an event or state, whereas plf describes the initial part of an event.
· A final place is different from gol in that plt describes the place where an event or state ended, whereas gol describes the final state of the object.

pof part of
indicate a concept of which a focused thing is a part

pof ( thing, thing )

Detailed Definition

Part-of is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – a partial thing, and
UW2 – a whole thing,
where:
· The UWs are different, and
· UW1 is a part of UW2

Examples and Readings

pof ( preamble(icl>information), document(icl>information) )
pof ( initial(icl>letter), machine translation )

the preamble of a document
the initials of Machine Translation

pos possessor 
indicates the possessor of a thing

pos ( thing, volitional thing )

Detailed Definition

A possessor is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – a thing or a place, and
UW2 - a human or non-human, seen as a volitional thing
where:
· UW2 is a possessor of UW1.

Examples and readings

pos ( dog(icl>aminal), John(iof>person) )
pos ( book(icl>document), I )

Johnfs dog
my book

ptn partner
indicates an indispensable non-focused initiator of an action

ptn ( do, thing )
ptn ( action(icl>event), thing )

Detailed Definition

A partner is defined as the relation between:
UW1 - an action, and
UW2 - a human or non-human, seen as a volitional thing
where:
· UW1 is a collaborative event initiated by both the agent and the partner, and
· UW2 is thought of as having a direct role in making an indispensable part of UW1 happen, and
· W2 is seen as not being in focus (as compared to the agent).

Examples and Readings

ptn ( compete(agt>thing,ptn>thing), John(iof>person) )
ptn ( share(icl>divide(agt>thing,obj>thing)), poor(icl>person) )
ptn ( collaborate(agt>thing,ptn>person), he )

c compete with John
c share c with the poor
c collaborate with him c

Related Relations

· A partner is different from agt in that an agent and its event are in focus, while a partner and its event are not in focus.
· A partner is different from cag in that a co-agent initiates an event that is independent of an agentfs event, whereas a partner initiates the same event together with an agent.

pur purpose
indicates the purpose or objective of an agent of an event or the purpose of a thing that exists

pur ( do, do )
pur ( do, thing )
pur ( thing, uw )

Detailed Definition

A purpose or objective is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – a thing or an action, and
UW2 – a thing or an action,
where:
When UW1 is an action:
· UW2 specifies the agentfs purpose or objective, or
· UW2 specifies the thing (object, state, event, etc.) that the agent desires to attain by carrying out UW1, or
When UW1 is a thing:
· UW2 is what UW1 is to be used for.

Examples and Readings

pur ( come(icl>move(agt>thing,gol>place,src>place)), 
see(icl>meet(agt>volitional thing,obj>thing)) )
pur ( work(agt>person), money(icl>mark) )
pur ( budget(icl>expense), research(icl>study))

c come to see you

... work for money
our budget for research

Related Relations

· A purpose or objective is different from gol in that pur describes the desires of an agent, whereas gol describes the state of the object at the end of an event.
· A purpose or objective is different from man and met in that pur describes the reason (purpose) why the event is being carried out, while man and met describe how it is being carried out.

qua quantity
indicates the quantity of a thing or unit

qua ( thing, quantity )

Detailed Definition

A quantity is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – a thing, and
UW2 – quantity,
where:
· UW2 is the number or amount of UW1.

Examples and Readings

qua ( cup(icl>tabelware), 2) )
qua ( coffee(icl>beverage), cup(icl>tableware) )
qua ( kilogram(icl>unit), many(qua<thing) )
qua ( dog(icl>animal), 2 )

Two cups of coffee

many kilograms
two dogs

Related Relations

· A quantity is different from per in that a quantity is an absolute number or amount, whereas per is a number or amount relative to some unit of reference (time, distance, etc.).
· A quantity is also used to express iteration, or the number of times an event or state occurs.

rsn reason
indicates a reason why an event or a state happens

rsn ( be, be )
rsn ( be, do )
rsn ( be, thing )
rsn ( be, occur )
rsn ( be, uw(aoj>thing) )
rsn ( do, be )
rsn ( do, do )
rsn ( do, thing )
rsn ( do, occur )
rsn ( do, uw(aoj>thing) )
rsn ( occur, be )
rsn ( occur, do )
rsn ( occur, occur )
rsn ( occur, thing )
rsn ( occur, uw(aoj>thing) )
rsn ( uw(aoj>thing), be )
rsn ( uw(aoj>thing), do )
rsn ( uw(aoj>thing), occur )
rsn ( uw(aoj>thing), thing )
rsn ( uw(aoj>thing), uw(aoj>thing) )

Detailed Definition

A reason is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – an event or state, and
UW2 – a thing, an event or a state,
where:
· UW2 is a reason why UW1 happens.

Examples and Readings

rsn ( go(icl>move(agt>thing,gol>place,src>place)).@not, rain(icl>weather) )
agt:01 ( arrive(icl>come(agt>thing,gol>place,src>place)), Mary(iof>person) )
rsn ( start(icl>begin(agt>thing,obj>thing)), :01 )
rsn ( known(aoj>thing), beauty(icl>abstract thing) )
aoj ( known(aoj>thing), city(icl>region) )
mod ( beauty(icl>abstract thing), city(icl>region) )

... didn't go because of the rain
They can start because Mary arrived.

a city known for its beauty

@

scn scene
indicates a scene where an event occurs, or state is true, or a thing exists

scn ( be, thing )
scn ( do, thing )
scn ( occur, thing )
scn ( thing, thing )
scn ( uw(aoj>thing), thing )

Detailed Definition

A scene is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – an event or state or thing, and
UW2 – an abstract or metaphorical thing (world) understood as a scene,
where:
· UW2 is the scene that UW1 happens or is true. When UW2 is a concrete thing or place, it is a metaphorical use, and
· UW1 is true or happens in a scene characterized by UW2.

Examples and Readings

scn ( win(agt>thing), contest(icl>event) )
scn ( appear(gol>thing,obj>thing), program(icl>plan) )
scn ( play(agt>thing,obj>thing), movie(icl>cinema) )

c win a prize in a contest
c appear on a TV program
c play in movie

Related Relations

· A scene is different from plc in that the reference place for plc is in the real place that something happens, whereas for scn it is an abstract or metaphorical world.

seq sequence
indicates a prior event or state of a focused event or state

seq ( do, do )
seq ( do, occur )
seq ( do, uw(aoj>thing) )
seq ( occur, do )
seq ( occur, occur )
seq ( occur, uw(aoj>thing) )
seq ( uw(aoj>thing), do )
seq ( uw(aoj>thing), occur )
seq ( uw(aoj>thing), uw(aoj>thing) )

Detailed Definition

A gsequenceh is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – a focused event or state,
UW2 – a prior event or state,
where:
· UW1 occurs or is true after UW2.

Examples and Readings

seq ( leap(icl>jump(agt>thing)), look(agt>thing,obj>thing) )
seq ( red(aoj>thing), green(aoj>thing) )
seq ( take off(agt>thing,obj>thing), come in(agt>thing) )

Look before you leap.
It was green and then red.
She came in and took her coat off

Related Relations

· A sequence is different from coo in that seq describes events or states that do not occur at the same time, but one after the other, whereas coo describes events that occur simultaneously.

shd sentence head
indicates a number, a mark or a thing that shows the position of a sentence, a paragraph or a chapter in a document or a book

shd ( uw, thing )

Detailed Definition

A sentence head is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – any concept, and
UW2 – a thing such as a number, a mark, etc
where:
· UW2 shows the position of a sentence, a paragraph or a chapter in a document or a book.

Examples and readings

shd ( relation(icl>sate), chapter(pof>book) )
mod ( chapter(pof>book), 2 )

Chapter 2 Relation

src source/initial state
indicates the initial state of an object or thing initially associated with the object of an event

src ( be(aoj>thing,gol>thing), thing )
src ( do, thing )
src ( do, uw(aoj>thing) )
src ( occur, thing )
src ( occur, uw(aoj>thing) )

Detailed Definition

An initial state is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – an event, and
UW2 – a state or thing,
where:
· UW2 is the specific state describing the object of UW1 at the beginning of UW1, or
· UW2 is a thing that is associated with the object of UW1 at the beginning of UW1.

Examples and readings

src ( change(obj>thing), red(aoj>thing) )
src ( withdraw(agt>thing,obj>thing), stove(icl>furniture) )

The lights changed from green to red.
I quickly withdrew my hand from the stove

Related Relations

· An initial state is different from tmf and plf in that src describes qualitative characteristics of the object and not time or place of an event.
· An initial state is different from gol in that gol describes the characteristics of the object at the final state of the event.

tim time
indicates the time an event occurs or a state is true

tim ( be, time(icl>abstract thing) )
tim ( do, time(icl>abstract thing) )
tim ( occur, time(icl>abstract thing) )
tim ( thing, time(icl>abstract thing) )
tim ( uw(aoj>thing), time(icl>abstract thing) )

Detailed Definition

Time is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – an event or state, and
UW2 – a time, or an event or a state that can be seen as a time,
where:
· UW1, taken as a whole, occurs at the time indicated by UW2.

Examples and Readings

tim ( leave(agt>thing,obj>place), Tuesday(icl>day) )
tim ( do(agt>thing,obj>thing), ofclock(icl>time) )
tim ( start(icl>>begin(agt>thing,obj>thing)), come(icl>move(agt>thing,gol>place,src>place)) )

c leave on Tuesday
c do c at c ofclock
Letfs start when c come

Related Relations

· ime is different from tmf and tmt in that time characterizes the event or state as a whole, whereas tmf and tmt  describe only parts of the event.
· Time is different from coo and seq in that time does not describe states and events relatively, with respect to each other, but with respect to certain points in time.

tmf initial time
indicates the time an event starts or a state becomes true

tmf ( be, time(icl>abstract thing) )
tmf ( do, time(icl>abstract thing) )
tmf ( occur, time(icl>abstract thing) )
tmf ( thing, time(icl>abstract thing) )
tmf ( uw(aoj>thing), time(icl>abstract thing) )

Detailed Definition

Initial time is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – an event or state, and
UW2 – a time, or an event or a state that can be seen as a time,
where:
· UW2 specifies the time at which UW1 starts, or
· UW2 specifies the time at which UW1 becomes true.

Examples and Readings

tmf ( work(agt>person), morning(icl>time) )
tmf ( change(obj>thing), live(agt>volitional thing) )

c work from morning to [till] night
c has changed c since I have lived here.

Related Relations

· Initial time is different from tim in that tmf expresses the time at the beginning of the event or state whereas tim expresses the time for the event taken as a whole.
· Initial time is different from src in that tmf expresses the time at the beginning of the event or state whereas src expresses characteristics of the object at the beginning of the event.
· Initial time is different from tmt in that tmf expresses the time at the beginning of the event or state whereas tmt expresses the time at its end.

tmt final time
indicates a time an event ends or a state becomes false

tmt ( be, time(icl>abstract thing) )
tmt ( do, time(icl>abstract thing) )
tmt ( occur, time(icl>abstract thing) )
tmt ( thing, time(icl>abstract thing) )
tmt ( uw(aoj>thing), time(icl>abstract thing) )

Detailed Definition

Final time is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – an event or state, and
UW2 – a time, or an event or a state that can be seen as a time,
where:
· UW2 specifies the time at which UW1 ends, or
· UW2 specifies the time at which UW1 becomes false.

Examples and Readings

tmt ( work(agt>person), night(icl>time) )
tmt ( full(aoj>thing), tomorrow(icl>time) )

c work from morning to [till] night
c be full till tomorrow

Related Relations

· Final time is different from tim in that tmt expresses the time at the end of the event or state, whereas tim expresses the time for the event taken as a whole.
· Final time is different from gol in that tmt expresses the time at the end of the event or state, whereas gol expresses characteristics of the object at the end of the event.
· Final time is different from tmf in that tmt expresses the time at the end of the event or state, whereas tmt expresses the time at the beginning of the event.

to destination
indicates a final state of a thing or a final thing (destination) associated with the focused thing

to ( thing, thing )

Detailed Definition

A destination is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – a thing, and
UW2 – a state or a thing that can be seen as destination,
where:
· The UWs are different, and
· UW1 is the focused thing, and
· UW2 is the final state describing the focused thing UW1, or
· UW2 is a thing that is finally associated with the UW1, destination such as the final position of UW1.

Examples and Readings

to ( train(icl>vehicle), London(iof>city) )
to ( letter(icl>document), you )

a train for London
a letter to you

Related Relations

· A destination is different with gol in that gol is a relation used with an event or a state, whereas to is directly linked to a thing. For instance, ga letter to youh is expressed as gto ( letter(icl>document), you )h, whereas ga letter sent to youh is expressed as ggol ( send(agt>thing,gol>thing,obj>thing), you )h and gobj ( send(agt>thing,gol>thing,obj>thing), letter(icl>document) )h.

via an intermediate place or state
indicates an intermediate place or state of an event

via ( do, thing )
via ( action(icl>event), thing )
via ( occur, thing )
via ( phenomenon(icl>event), thing )

Detailed Definition

An intermediate place or state is defined as the relation between:
UW1 – an event, and
UW2 – a place or state,
where:
· UW2 is the specific place or state describing the object of UW1 at some time in the middle of UW1,
· UW2 is a thing that describes a place or state that the object of UW1 passed by or through during UW1..

Examples and Readings

via ( go(icl>move(agt>thing,gol>place,src>place)), New York(iof>city) )
via ( bike(agt>thing), Alps(iof>mountain) )
via ( drive(agt>thing), tunnel(icl> facilities) )

c go c via New York
c bike c through the Alps
c drive c by way of the tunnel

Related Relations

· An intermediate place or state is different from src, plf and tmf in that these all refer to the beginning of an event, whereas via describes the middle of an event.
· An intermediate place or state is different from gol, plt and tmt in that these all refer to the end of an event, whereas via describes the middle of an event.


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