4.3 BAS / CAG / CAO / COB / PTN

3.3.1 BAS   (Basis for expressing degree)
Definition:  Bas defines a thing used as the basis for expressing degree

Relation bas is used in the following cases.

(1) Used for a comparative or superlative expression

Example 1

English

A is more beautiful than B

UNL

aoj ( beautiful.@entry, A )
man ( beautiful.@entry, more )
bas ( more, B )

Example 2

English

He is more quiet than shy

UNL

aoj ( :01.@entry, he )
man:01 ( quiet.@entry, more )
bas:01 ( more, shy )

Example3

English

the richest person among us in this room

UNL

aoj ( rich, person.@entry.@def )
man ( rich, most )
bas ( most, us )
plc ( rich, room )

In UNL, a comparative or superlative expression is expressed by the way of “man ( Adjective/Adverb, more/most )”. For example, “richest” is expressed as “man ( rich, most )”, and “more intelligent” is expressed as “man ( intelligent, more )”. Relation "bas" connects “more/most” with the basis UW, its UNL expression will be “bas ( more/most, Thing )”.

The following is a more complex example of comparison, in which a quantity is using as degree of comparison. There are two UWs “more” in it, “more:01” and “more:02”. “more:01” is for expressing the degree “more than 3 meters”, “more:02” is for the comparison “longer than the stick”.

Example4

English

the rope is more than three meters longer than the stick

UNL

aoj ( long.@entry, rope.@def )
man ( long.@entry, more:02 )
bas ( more:02, stick.@def )
man ( more:02, more:01 )
bas ( more:01, meter.@pl )
qua ( meter.@pl, 3 )

(2) Used for a Relative UW

The meanings of prepositions such as “before”, “after”, “under”, etc are expressed by Relative UWs. Relation "bas" is also used for linking such an UW and its complement. Relative UWs are expressed in the way of "before(icl>time)", "before(icl>place)", etc. Restrictions are always attached.

Example5

English

Come before 10 o’clock

UNL

tim ( come.@entry.@imperative, before(icl>time) )
bas ( before(icl>time), o’clock )
man ( o’clock, 10 )
mod (hour, 10)

Example6

English

A cat is sleeping under the table

UNL

agt ( sleep.@entry.@progress, cat )
plc ( sleep.@entry.@progress, under(icl>place) )
bas ( under(icl>place), table )

Example7

English

It’s five minutes to(UW=before) ten o’clock

UNL

bas ( before(icl>time).@entry, o’clock )
man ( before(icl>time).@entry, minute.@pl )
qua ( minute.@pl, 5 )
man( o’clock, 10 )
mod ( hour, 10 )


4.3.2 CAG  (Co-agent)
Definition:  Cag defines a thing not in focus which initiates an implicit event which is done in parallel

Relation “cag” is used for sentences like the following. This kind of sentence imply two independent events based on different agents. For example, the following sentence implies “I live here, and he lives here”. In UNL, this kind of sentences are simply expressed by using relation “cag”.

Example

English

I live here with him

UNL

agt ( live.@entry, I )
cag ( live.@entry, he )
plc ( live.@entry, here )


4.3.3 CAO  (Co-thing with attribute)
Definition:  Cao defines a thing not in focus as in a state in parallel

Relation "cao" is used for a thing not in focus which is in a state. The purpose of the use of "cao" is the same as "cag".

Example1

English

I am here with you

UNL

aoj ( here.@entry, I )
cao ( here.@entry, you )


4.3.4 COB  (Affected co-thing)
Definition:  Defines a thing that is directly affected by an implicit event done in parallel or an implicit state in parallel

Relation "cob" is used for a thing not in focus directly affected by the event.

Example

English

He fell into the river with a car

UNL

obj ( fall.@entry.@past, he ) 
gol ( fall.@entry.@past, river )
cob ( fall.@entry.@past, car )

Note: Relation “cob” does not have the use of second object in exchange verbs, like "He changed a dollar bill for ten dimes", in such a case “gol” will be used.

4.3.5 PTN   (Partner)
Definition:  Ptn defines indispensable non-focused initiator of an action

Relation "ptn" is used in a collaborative event that is initiated by an agent ("agt") and a partner ("ptn") together. The difference between co-agent ("cag") and partner ("ptn") is that "ptn" initiates the same event together with an agent, whereas a co-agent initiates an event that is independent of the agent’s event.

Example1

English

I discussed the problem with my friends

UNL

agt ( discuss.@entry.@past, I )
ptn ( discuss.@entry.@past, friend.@pl )
pos ( friend.@pl, I )

A related issue : a question on “against”

“against” as in sentence “a struggle of labor against capital” is not codified a partner (ptn). An UW like “be against” or “oppose” should be used. Its UNL expression will be:

Example2

English

a struggle of labor against capital

UNL

mod ( struggle.@entry.@indef, labor )
man ( struggle.@entry.@indef, be against )
obj ( be against, capital )

Example3

English

I voted against him

UNL

agt ( vote.@past.@entry, I )
man ( vote.@past.@entry, be against )
obj ( be against, he )


Last updated : 2000/09/21